Where you grow up has a lot of influence on you, even if you are a bacterium. But when it changes, it makes life—and evolution—a lot more random.
A quark’s color can be red, green, or blue. That’s fine. A quark’s flavor is, well… strange. Or charm, up, down, top, or bottom. How did scientists come up with such odd flavors?
Since the first time gravitational waves were detected, people compared them to “hearing” the universe. Indeed, it’s a completely new way of observing the universe, one that does not need light. But it sure is an odd sort of “sound”.
When we think of evolution, we think natural selection, survival of the fittest. But that’s not all. Primal forces lurk work in the background. When selection disappears, they finally break free.
20 years after it launched, the NASA spacecraft Cassini ends its mission today. Its 13 years in orbit culminate in one last mission: to dive into the planet’s atmosphere, while still measuring and transmitting data.